I have always been a little bit fascinated by these types of results, and wondered if my genes do affect my ability to add muscle, lose weight, gain weight etc, but would never of thought about actually having it done, so I have found myself in a really good situation in which WHF have given me the opportunity to have it done.
I received a package in the post, in which I opened up excitedly, I had to spit in a little tube and send it back to WHF, whom then sent it off to be tested. I have been waiting patiently for the results. Now that I have them, I am trying to decipher them. Some things on there make a lot of sense, either that or I am trying to find ways of making it relate to me. According to my results I have a tendency to store body fat easily (I am sure some of my family members could relate to this), I also have a gene that exhibits more loss of control when eating (may explain the binge eating and why I am always hungry). I also have a gene for endurance exercises which is quite fascinating considering the sports I love to do.
Below I have listed my results, mainly for me to refer back to but also for those that maybe interested in having it done. Be warned there is a lot of info ;)
One copy of a particular version of the ACE gene has been found more often in elite endurance athletes, and every climber tested to date who has ascended over 8,000m. Your FitnessGenes result tells you whether you carry this endurance version, the alternative power/strength version or both.
You have one copy of the 'endurance' I allele and one copy of the 'power/strength' D allele.
With one copy of each allele and an intermediate level of ACE protein produced as a result, individuals with the ID genotype are likely to have a good balance of endurance and strength. They show improved endurance ability in response to training over the DD genotype and greater improvements in ‘strength endurance’ compared with the II genotype. This could be the optimal genotype for middle-distance runners, cyclists, and rowers, although elite athletes in both endurance and power events are often found with this genotype.
ACTN3 is the world’s most famous ‘gene for speed’. This gene encodes for α-actinin-3, a protein that has been linked to greater baseline strength, a protective effect against muscle damage, and an increase in fast-twitch muscle fibres. One particular version of ACTN3 has been found in almost every Olympic sprinter ever tested. Your FitnessGenes result will tell you if you carry the ‘sprinter’ version, the version linked to endurance or both.
You have two copies of the 'sprinter' R allele.
Carriers of the R allele produce plenty of alpha-actinin-3, a protein which is associated with a ‘boost’ in muscle strength and performance. This boost is possibly due to an increase in the overall size and number of fast-twitchmuscle fibres. As a result, RR is a genotype commonly found in elite speed/power athletes.
The muscle growth limiting protein myostatin (as explained in the MSTN gene report) is affected by a protein encoded by the ACVR1B gene. One variation of ACVR1B has been associated with increased strength.
You have two copies of the ‘increased muscle strength’ A allele.
Your ACVR1B genotype has been linked to increased muscle strength. However, the effect of this gene is still relatively unexplored, and there are many other factors and genes which can affect muscle strength more significantly.
You have one copy of the ‘lower levels of beta-2 adrenergic receptor’ A alleleand one copy of the ‘higher levels of beta-2 adrenergic receptor‘ G allele.
Your genotype has been associated with lower levels of this receptor than the GG genotype. This may lower your ability to deliver oxygen to the blood and working muscles.
ADRB2_2 - A GENE FOR ADRENALINE SIGNALLING
The fight-or-flight hormone, adrenaline, functions as a signalling molecule by binding to a protein coded for by the ADBR2 gene (beta-2 adrenergic receptor). This receptor plays a key role in skeletal muscle, cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic and hormonal systems. The ADRB2_2 genetic variations are associated with obesity and the effect of weight loss interventions.
The protein angiotensinogen, which is produced by the AGT gene, is one of the initial components of a system which helps regulate blood pressure. It also has associations with skeletal and cardiac muscle growth. Your FitnessGenes result indicates your angiotensinogen levels, susceptibility to develop high blood pressure and the impact on strength/power performance.
You have two copies of the ‘average angiotensin level’ T allele.
Your genotype, TT, is associated with average angiotensin levels and a lower risk of developing high blood pressure compared to other genotypes. However, this association with blood pressure is largely influenced by environmental factors such as dietary sodium intake and fat mass.
The AKT1 gene codes for an enzyme related to muscle building and metabolism. Some of us carry a particular version of this gene that is linked to better resting metabolic factors and greater increases in VO2 max in response to aerobic exercise. Your FitnessGenes result tells you which version of this gene you carry.
You have two copies of the ‘average metabolic levels’ G allele.
The GG genotype is linked to a more effective response to aerobic training than those who are T carriers, with better improvements in insulin and glucose levels. The G allele is also linked to greater strength gains.
AMPD1 - A GENE FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION
AMPD is an enzyme that plays a role in anaerobic capacity and leads to fast accumulation of lactate after sprint exercises. We test for a genetic variation (AMPD1) that has been linked to different levels of this enzyme. One variation leads to lower levels of AMPD and has been found less frequently in strength/power athletes.
The APOA2 gene codes for a protein that is thought to play a role in fat metabolism, insulin sensitivity and obesity. A variation in this gene has been associated with a larger response to saturated fat intake and obesity.
You have one copy of the ‘greater sensitivity to saturated fat’ and one copy of the ‘lower sensitivity to saturated fat’ allele.
You have one copy of the allele associated with greater sensitivity to saturated fat intake and a higher BMI and one copy of the allele associated with lower sensitivity to saturated fat intake and a lower BMI.
APOA5 - A GENE FOR BLOOD TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS
The APOA5 gene codes for the APOA5 molecule. This molecule plays an important role in regulating blood triglyceride levels. FitnessGenes test for a variation of the APOA5 gene which affect levels of the APOA5 molecule in the blood and suggest some dietary choices to control blood triglyceride levels.
YOUR RESULT: AG
You have one copy of the 'average triglyceride levels' A allele and one copy of the G allele, linked to higher average levels of triglycerides.
You have one copy of the G allele and this has been linked to an increased risk of higher blood triglyceride levels when high amounts of polyunsaturated fats are consumed.
Widening of the blood vessels and therefore blood flow and blood pressure is regulated, amongst other things, by a molecule called bradykinin. Bradykinin binds to the bradykinin receptor (a protein encoded by the BDKRB2 gene). Different variants of this gene lead to lower or higher expression of this receptor and are associated with hypertension risk and also with endurance athletes.
You have one copy of the ‘increased high blood pressure risk’ C allele.
Although those with your genotype were found to be at increased risk of high blood pressure, remember this is a trait which is largely affected by your weight, environment, diet and lifestyle and your genotype does not mean that you are will or do suffer from this.
Creatine kinase, encoded by the CKM gene, is an enzyme which influences the energy systems used in your cells. Your FitnessGenes result tells you whether you carry a CKM genotype that is found more commonly in endurance or strength athletes. CKM levels are also related to the ability to process oxygen which is important for speed and endurance.
You have two copies of the ‘endurance athlete and increased VO2 max’ T allele.
Research has shown that your CKM genotype was more frequently found in endurance athletes and that those with your genotype may have a greater endurance training response seen through an improvement of VO2 max. VO2max (maximal rate of oxygen uptake) is a measure of cardio-respiratory endurance. Your genotype may lead to low creatine kinase activity, which is advantageous for endurance performance.
Sleep duration and quality can affect many things, including muscle recovery, muscle building, weight loss, athletic performance, learning and cognition. Many gene variants have been reported to affect the sleep cycle or the circadian clock. At FitnessGenes, we test for the Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (Clock) gene. Your result tells you whether you do or don't carry any genetic variants associated with a disturbed circadian rhythm and whether you are likely to be a night owl, morning lark or somewhere in between.
You have two copies of the T allele and are more likely to be an early bird.
Based on your genetic result, you have a low likelihood of developing or having a disturbed circadian rhythm. Therefore, chances are smaller that your sleep pattern interferes with muscle recovery or weight loss goals compared to other genotypes. At the read more section you find tips to optimize your sleep quality and when to train - based on the time you wake up.
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a protein which functions mainly in the nervous system. It is involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and nerve growth as well as protecting against inflammation. Variations in the CNTF gene affect the levels of CNTF protein and are associated with body composition and strength gains.
You have two copies of the ‘normal CNTF levels’ G allele.
Your genotype leads to normal CNTF levels. This is associated with higher strength values, particularly in women. However, this association has only been found when you have a healthy and active lifestyle.
Caffeine has been used by athletes for a long time as a performance-enhancing drug. Studies have shown that taking caffeine improves performance in sports and exercise. Your FitnessGenes result tells you which caffeine-clearing molecule you carry and how long you can expect it to take for caffeine to be removed from the bloodstream.
You have two copies of the 'fast metaboliser' A allele, and are characterised as a fast caffeine metaboliser.
This means that certain lifestyle factors have the effect of speeding up your caffeine metabolism. If you have this genotype and you consume lots of caffeine (more than 3 cups of coffee a day), smoke, live in a polluted area, or if you consume lots of leafy green veg, then the rate at which caffeine is cleared from your system increases.
Folate, or folic acid, is usually something we associate with pregnant women, but might it have important consequences for you too? The role of folate in red blood cell production and tissue repair makes it a particularly important vitamin for athletes, bodybuilders and fitness enthusiasts. Folate deficiency can also increase homocysteine levels in the blood, which is an indicator of certain health issues. Your FitnessGenes result tells you whether you carry any genetic variations which affect the folate pathways in your body.
You are at relatively LOW RISK for mild to moderate increases in homocysteinelevels.
You have a genotype for MTHFR which, combined with your genotype for both MTR and MTRR, puts you at relatively LOW RISK for high homocysteine levels. High homocysteine levels increase in the blood as a result of reduced enzymeactivity in the folate and methionine cycles. Therefore, with the exception of pregnancy, it is unlikely you will require any additional supplementation as long as you consume the daily recommended intake of 0.4mg of folate in your diet.
Genetics is known to influence food cravings, with carriers of a particular version of the FTO gene seemingly biologically wired to eat more and feel hungrier sooner. In ancient humanity, where food was scarce, this is likely to have been a straightforward survival mechanism, but it becomes problematic in a modern world with easy access to high-energy foods. Your FitnessGenes result will tell you whether you have any copies of the FTO gene linked to increased appetite.
You have two copies of the 'increased obesity risk' A allele.
Those with two copies of the A allele weigh about 3kg (6.6lb) more on average than those with no copies. Research has shown that carriers of the A allelehave an increased appetite and exhibit more loss of control when eating compared to those with the TT genotype.
Eye, hair and skin colour vary around the world because of the production of a pigment called melanin. One gene in particular, HERC2, is one of the genes responsible for melanin production and its effect can be seen directly from your eye colour. Your FitnessGenes result tells you which version of this gene you carry and what level of melanin you are likely to produce as a result.
You have a copy of the ‘brown eye’ A allele and a copy of the ‘blue eye’ G allele.
Associated with intermediate levels of melanin on average, this genotype gives you on average a 54% chance of green eyes, 40% chance of brown eyes and 6% chance of blue eyes.
The body uses several proteins to deal with conditions of low oxygen, one of them is HIF1a (coded by the HIF1a gene). HIF1a controls the activation of genes affecting glucose processing, metabolism, and the formation of red blood cells and blood vessels. One variant of this genewas found more frequently in weightlifters, while the other was found more frequently in elite endurance athletes and was associated with a higher increase in VO2 max through aerobic exercise training.
You have two copies of the ‘increased VO2 max response and endurance’ allele.
You have two copies of the C allele; this has been linked to elite endurance status and more pronounced improvements in VO2 max.
IGF1 - A GENE FOR REGULAR GROWTH/DEVELOPMENT
The IGF1 gene influences circulating levels of the IGF1 hormone which is necessary for muscle growth and development. Variants have been associated with benefits for strength performance. We test for two variations of the IGF1 gene (IGF1 and IGF1_2), which code for the same protein, but have a slightly different effect on the protein’s function, and ultimately on the physical trait of performance. Your FitnessGenes result will identify how your circulating IGF1 levels are affected and how this impacts on these traits.
YOUR RESULT: GG
You have two copies of the ‘average circulating IGF1 levels’ G allele.
Normal circulating IGF1 levels are associated with this genotype along with lower baseline strength and response to resistance training. You could also be at a slightly elevated risk of weight gain if a healthy lifestyle is not adopted.
The IGF1 gene influences circulating levels of the IGF1 hormone which is necessary for muscle growth and development. We test for two variations of the IGF1 gene (IGF1 and IGF1_2), which code for the same protein, but have a slightly different effect on the protein’s function, and ultimately on the physical trait of performance. Your FitnessGenes result for IGF1_2 will identify how your circulating IGF1 levels are affected and how this impacts you.
You have two copies of the ‘average circulating IGF1 levels’ T allele.
Your genotype is associated with average circulating levels of the IGF1, and with a lower maximal force production, which may impair some aspects of power/speed performance.
IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1), a hormone that promotes cell growth and cell division in both children and adults, is transported through the blood by a molecule called IGF-binding protein 3 (coded by the IGFBP3 gene). It regulates the activity of IGF1 by protecting it against breakdown and preventing it from binding to its receptor. Variations in this gene affect the levels of IGFBP-3 and IGF1 and may affect body composition.
You have two copies of the ‘reduced chances of low body fat’ C allele.
You have two copies of the C allele which was found to be associated with higher body fat.
This gene is linked to the prevention of muscle breakdown as well as lean body mass and can affect how quickly individuals increase their muscle size (hypertrophy). Your FitnessGenes result will tell you whether you have the version associated with muscle size or whether you have the version linked to muscle strength in response to resistance-type training.
You have one copy of the 'muscle hypertrophy' A allele and one copy of the 'muscle strength' C allele.
Carrying at least one copy of the C allele for this genetic variation in the interleukin-15 receptor alpha gene (IL-15Ra) has been linked to increases in strength in response to resistance exercise training, but perhaps paradoxically a lesser increase in muscle size. In contrast, individuals who are AA demonstrate the highest hypertrophic response (increase in muscle size) but present the lowest gains in strength. Based on the evidence to date it appears that when you carry a copy of each allele you tend towards a balanced intermediate of muscle volume to strength.
The cytokine interleukin 6 (IL6, coded by the IL6 gene) is a signalling molecule that is produced in the muscles during exercise. It is thought to be involved in pro- and anti-inflammatory responses and to help nutrient mobilisation and delivery, making it important for performance and recovery. Variations in the IL6 gene can affect levels of IL6. One variation has been associated with power athletes and better body composition.
You have one copy of the ‘higher IL6 expression’ G allele and one copy of the ‘lower IL-6 expression’ C allele.
Your genotype was associated with intermediate levels of IL6. The frequency of the G allele is higher within power athletes, indicating your genotype may have benefits for power related performance. However, having the C allele is associated with greater weight gain if not leading a healthy lifestyle.
The IL6R gene codes for the receptor of the interleukin 6 protein (IL6R) which is found on the surface of cells, as well as circulating freely around the body. Due to its mobility, IL6R can influence the activity and function of interleukin 6, a molecule involved in pro- and anti-inflammatory responses. Variations of the IL6R gene have been associated with the metabolic syndrome.
You have one copy of the ‘average IL6 receptor expression’ A allele and one copy of the ‘higher IL6 receptor expression’ C allele.
Your genotype may be associated with a slightly higher risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome compared to other genotypes.
Lactose tolerance is the ability to digest the lactose in milk and other everyday dairy products. For the majority of people, tolerance for lactose decreases after infancy, often falling away completely during adulthood. However, for others, due to a genetic variant in their DNA, they are able to continue to tolerate lactose indefinitely. Your FitnessGenes result will tell you whether you are genetically able to tolerate lactose.
You have one copy of the 'lactose tolerant' T allele, and are likely genetically lactose tolerant.
You carry one copy of the genetic variation associated with the ability to digest lactose into adulthood and as a result your genetic lactase switch is most likely set to ‘on’. Individuals who carry one copy of the T allele, as opposed to two, have been found to have intermediate levels of lactase activity. This means that while they are able to effectively break down lactose, they can be more susceptible to lactose intolerance at times of stress or gastrointestinal infection.
Variations in this gene will alter the expression of MCT1 which allows the clearance of lactic acid. This determines the onset of fatigue when exercising. Your FitnessGenes result tells you whether you carry the fast version, slow version or both versions of the lactic acid clearing gene. This will determine how quickly lactic acid accumulates during exercise.
You have two copies of the ‘slow lactic acid clearing’ T allele.
Carriers of the T allele have lower levels of MCT1, with as great a decline as 60% seen. This will reduce the capacity of the muscles to process lactic acid, allowing it to accumulate faster and leading to premature onset of fatigue. Despite it’s link to poor fatigue resistance, research has shown this genotypeto be most commonly found in sprinters compared to endurance athletes which may be due to lactate activating hypertrophic signalling pathways.
Skeletal muscle growth in response to training is determined by genetics, and a rare version of the MSTN gene, which encodes the muscle-limiting protein myostatin, is associated with much greater muscle mass and strength. Your FitnessGenes result tells you which version of this geneyou have and how this affects muscle building in response to training.
You have two copies of the 'normal myostatin' K allele.
Over 87% of the population carries the KK genotype, which is associated with normal baseline levels of myostatin. As well as response to resistance training, studies have also indicated that myostatin may play a role in tendon structure (tendons are required for ‘explosive’ power, such as jumping).
MSTNRARE - A GENE FOR UNUSUAL MUSCLE SIZE AND STRENGTH
Skeletal muscle growth is influenced by genetics and myostatin is a protein that can inhibit it. A very rare variation of the gene coding for myostatin (MSTN) results in a complete knock out (loss of function) of the gene, and results in an unusually greater muscle mass and strength. We called this polymorphism the MSTNRARE gene. Your FitnessGenes result tells you whether you have carry the rare myostatin knock-out allele.
YOUR RESULT: GG
You have two copies of the ‘average myostatin level’ G allele.
Not surprisingly, as the presence of the knock out mutation is extremely rare, you do not carry any copies of the very rare genetic variant. You probably already know that as you weren’t born with unusually big and strong muscles
Nitric oxide synthase 3 (coded by the NOS3 gene) is an enzyme that facilitates the production of nitric oxide (NO). NO is involved in the widening of blood vessels by relaxation of the smooth muscle cells within their walls, which increases blood flow. Variations in the NOS3 gene may affect the predisposition for power/strength performance. These variations may also influence the beneficial effects induced by exercise, such as a lowering of blood triglycerides levels.
You have one copy of the 'reduced NOS3' C allele and one copy of the 'power/strength' T allele.
Since you have a copy of each of the alleles, you may get the benefits of both; having the T allele results in a higher NOS3 expression and activity than CC genotypes. Power/strength athletes were also more likely to carry the T allelecompared to endurance athletes and non-athlete controls. On the other hand, having the C allele may also be more favorable for reducing blood pressure (in people with high blood pressure) and for lowering blood triglycerides in response to exercise compared to TT individuals.
As well as being a marker for good health, having a high aerobic capacity enables your body to work harder during prolonged exercise. Some of us are lucky enough to have a naturally high aerobic capacity due to our genes. A variation in the PGC1A gene is associated with greater baseline aerobic fitness. Your FitnessGenes result tells you which version of this gene you have and how it affects you.
You have two copies of the 'improved gains' S allele.
Associated with lower baseline levels of PGC1A protein, the S allele has been found to be less frequent in world-class endurance athletes, which suggests this genotype may impair aerobic capacity, although it does not affect ability to perform in power-based sports. Regular aerobic exercise is particularly beneficial to the health of SS individuals.
The ability to switch use fats as fuel over carbohydrates combined with the distribution of fast and slow-twitch muscle fibres are both important factors affecting endurance performance. The PPARA protein plays a role in these. Your FitnessGenes result tells you whether you have a version of PPARA that is predominant in endurance athletes, power/speed athletes or both.
You have two copies of the 'fat-burning' G allele.
A common genotype in elite endurance athletes, GG individuals have higher levels of PPARA protein in their skeletal muscles on average. As PPARA turns on genes that shift our metabolism to more energy-efficient fat burning, this genotype is perfect for those undertaking endurance-oriented activities.
Genetic variations in uncoupling proteins are thought to lead to differences in the efficiency of people's metabolism. We test for variations in the UCP2 and UCP3 genes. UCP2 is expressed in many types of cells, amongst them muscle cells, cells of the lymph system and the cells that produce insulin. Your FitnessGenes result tells you which version of UCP2 you have and how you can expect it to affect your metabolism.
You have one copy of the 'fast metabolism' A allele and one copy of the 'slow metabolism' V allele.
The V allele is linked to a more efficient metabolism and is found at higher frequencies in elite endurance athletes, while the A allele is linked to a faster metabolism and a lower risk of weight gain, particularly if combined with exercise. As you carry a copy of each, you are likely to have a metabolic rate intermediate between AA and VV genotypes.
Genetic variations in uncoupling proteins are thought to lead to differences in the efficiency of people's metabolism. We test for variations in the UCP2 and UCP3 genes. UCP3 is mainly expressed in skeletal muscles and is involved in fatty acid metabolism and protecting cells from oxidative damage.
You have one copy of the ‘lower metabolic rate’ G allele and one copy of the ‘higher metabolic rate’ A allele.
Your genotype has been associated with high UCP3 expression, lower body mass index (BMI) and high aerobic capacity.
We test for a variation of the VEGFA gene linked to levels of the VEGFA molecule in the blood. This molecule is involved in forming new blood vessels as an adaptation to training. These new blood vessels increase the blood supply to muscles, which can improve endurance. FitnessGenes tell you whether you have a version of this gene that has been associated with endurance.
You have one copy of the ‘increased circulating VEGFA levels’ C allele and one copy of the ‘lowered circulating VEGFA levels’ G allele.
You have one copy of the VEGFA C allele that was found to be more common in endurance athletes.
Vitamin D influences immunity, bone health and testosterone levels. The vitamin D receptor(coded for by VDR) is important for many processes associated with vitamin D. Variations in the VDR gene that FitnessGenes test for have been associated with skeletal muscle strength.
You have two copies of the C allele which has been associated with lower skeletal muscle strength.
The C allele of your genotype was associated with lower skeletal muscle strength, however since genes work in combination with each other and the environment, this result does not mean that you are unable to have strong muscles.